The following is an abstract concerning the above topoc. It passed and the students mentioned had a chance to present it in Nairobi, at the 2nd Africa International Biotechnology and Biomedical Conference whose theme was Africa’s Road to Dignity Beyond the Millenium Development Goals through Biotechnology and Biochemical Research.

Evaluation of m- Health sensing programs in adressing the plight of HIV in Africa.

Marcia Apiyo OBONDI, Kevin Tony Okoth*

School of Medicine, Maseno University, Kisumu, Kenya.


Mobile communication offers an effective means of bringing healthcare services to developing-country citizens. Recent studies by United Nations reveal that approximately 64% of all mobile phone users can now be found in the developing world. This growing ubiquity of mobile phones is a central element in the promise of mobile technologies for health. In Kenya today, stringent policies need to be established to address the low turnover of patients requiring HIV care. m-Health, due to its large user base can be an effective way for creating an interactive experience between HIV-infected patients and healthcare workers thereby improving patient care. In light of that, this study intends to assess role of m-Health in health education and support of HIV-infected patients in Kenya. The intended way of doing this is by integrating Bluetooth enabled devices in healthcare to improve HIV management and care thereby ensuring active patient participation in self-care.



Pile of medical books

It comes a time when a medical student must stoop low and do whatever brought them to school. Put away all the luxury and extra times you have. Run away from your friends and revert to an introvert for a week. Exam fever plays a good role. I just realized this this week. I had a lot to go through. First of all we have to go for three semesters to end the academic year. The whole programme runs for six years. Those are eighteen  semesters. Now convert that to a commoner who takes two semesters to complete an academic year, and takes four years in campus. That brings me to taking nine years in campus. That is twice and even much than the normal people. I am not bragging, but that’s the truth of the matter.

Exam fever!! You have the term squeezed, leave alone the lots of topics you have to cover in a day. It is only in the medical school that you read a whole book of twenty chapters each with ten sub-chapters with sub-chapters too only for a cat, and twice as much for an end-term exam. Then multiply that by eight units you do in a term, and twenty four for the work load in a year because you have to do an end year exam covering all the things you learned. You are not done yet! You have a final exam at the end of your six years, you have not yet started earning! Who on earth would opt for that? Only the tough guys. There is always an option of repeating a class if you can’t make it to the 50% mark.

Respect the doctors you see around. Give them what they deserve. Trust them with your lives and get the quality you need in return. Don’t deny them their hard-earned salary lest they go away.

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Do ladies get fat because of having sex? This is a myth that many of us has had. From my own observations, I can stand to defend myself. I want to tell you why it is a myth.

One reason why people never fathom this is because of the lack of knowledge in digestion physiology. They argue that sperms are major source of proteins for the lady and base their reasoning behind this. Let us look at it keenly. After ejaculation, some sperms leak out of the female tract. Others are stored in the fornix where they are viable for 3 to 5 days. Others travel through the cervix into the uterus and fallopian tube for fertilization. The remaining number is too small to cater for the protein requirement for body building. Of course I don’t advocate for that. It’s a lie. Secondly, there is no digestive mechanism for sperms in the female tract. Enzymes that digest proteins are only present in the alimentary canal. Furthermore, the ph. of vagina is about 3.8-4.5 and the optimum ph. for enzymes that digest proteins in the stomach is 2. This disqualifies it again. Even if digestion was taking place in the vagina, where would the absorption take place? Please think about this.

The protein content of sperm is very negligible with small amounts of albumin that is not even needed for body building, rather it’s a transport protein. Semen itself contain large amounts of fructose, citric acid and lipids, all that provide nutrition for the sperm to aid in motility. So the issue of sperm as a source of nutrients is vague.

During sex, research has shown that about 200 calories are used up in thirty minutes, so the frequent the amount of sex one engages in, the more calories are burnt and the more weight loss expected. This is evident that we expect a weight loss. Let us also consider those who have protected sex. There is no ejaculation inside the female tract, but there is use of calories. So no sperm deposited for the “protein source” but energy is used.

However, after sex, high amounts of hormone prolactin is released that favors weight gain in women. Not all usually reduce weight, but some may gain. I therefore say that constant sex doesn’t make a lady fat, but slimmer.

Any critics and comments can be submitted after reading this article. Contact me via email


                               indexmu mum 2

No hard feelings towards The Mater Hospital and Mumias Sugar Company. But am free to express my repugnance, disenchantment, resentment and discontent on how the event was held. It all started in school. A group of students concerned approaching the dean of students for bus approval, but because of the ignorance in the department, he denies us the bus on the basis that we are on with class boycott. Who told him that we were going for fun? For God’s sake it’s a child’s heart we were going to touch. That aside please.

I started getting rumors that the event won’t be as successful as that for the previous years. Reasons being that the Mumias Sugar Company was facing some issues that would render the whole event futile. The allegations that the former manager, Dr. Evans Kidero was facing charges of corruption was the reason. What did this mean? No sponsorship for the event as they have done before, especially lunch for the institutions secured for that. It’s alright if you want to think that am gluttonous. But to some, that was the main motivation of going round the town, to friends, your enemies and relatives to collect the cash. How can you be given a profoma to collect cash out of good will, take your time to attend the event, run for miles just to motivate them and then end up in the hot sun waiting for nothing? We use blood, not fuel or solar.

The ceremony too was disorganized. From small space to few tents. No proper protocol observed, no satisfying speeches and recognition. Everything was mixed up. I wonder why this happened. They don’t give an account of how the funds are used. Pure demotivation. People sitting under the scorching sun because the chairs were few.

There was a lot of complaints about this. It’s a serious matter because the contributions will reduce the next time. The year 2014, Maseno School of Medicine contributed a whopping 150000 towards supporting a child. The year 2015, which am basing my critic on, the contribution was 88000, not a bad sum, but a declined one. Am pretty sure that if people will turn out for this event, they will only be a handful. That means a reduced contribution. It may not have impact anyway, but the truth is that they killed our morale.

I stand to rebuke them, let them kill themselves if they think I am lying. But we will continue supporting you. I am a medic anyway. I would not like to see a child die because of heart problems that can be prevented. As I wrap it up, I would like to thank all those who turned up for the event.

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Ever heard of urophagia? The desire to drink urine.

urine 3 urine2

I was going through a variety of articles on net yesterday. I don’t know what triggered me to write this. But when I watch a movie called “against the sun,” I got inspired more. When you tell people about this, many views you will get. But am not afraid to put it down on paper. It’s the plain truth, no cheating here. Being a medic has impacted a lot on me. There are some things that am not afraid to express. Let’s go!

Some say it treats hypertension. Others diabetes. But I did a further research on this, to prove whether it’s right or wrong. Though it may seem vague, at least I’ll shade some light on the ignored subject. I can’t talk about this without highlighting the components of urine. Urine is made up of 95% water, and the remaining 5% constitute solutes like urea, creatinine, uric acid, carbohydrates, hormones, fatty acids, pigments and so much more. Don’t forget inorganic ions like sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium and ammonium. Pretty boring to read, but you have no choice anyway. I want to be honest. Whatever I’ll list below is from a research. I found out that urine can treat the following.

  • Arthritis
  • Eczema
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Herpes
  • Adrenal failure
  • Psoriasis

Another fact is that urine has got antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal properties. Consider urinating on your finger nail after a viral infection instead of taking a microtubule synthesis inhibitor like Griseofulvin. I bet it also has anti-inflammatory actions because it’s pretty good after a bee sting and jelly fish sting.


I don’t want to quit without mentioning this. As you drink your pee, think of the vast number of bacteria that can be present, especially if you have bacteremia. Some may vomit it out, understand. That is psychological. As I wrap it up all, decide on your own. I am not a urologist to tell you whether its good or bad but at least believe in what I have told you.

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Honestly, someone needs to advice Kenyan men on how to take things seriously. I didn’t wake up and said this, I faced the wrath of ignorance. On 15th and 16th May, 2015, the African Cancer Foundation together with Faraja Cancer Support Trust held a free cancer screening event at Nakumatt Mega City in the lakeside town, Kisumu city. This targeted both sexes, with the males being screened of breast and prostate cancer, and the females’ breast and cervical cancer. Yes, its breast for males. This is one hard task I had to explain. Imagine you telling a male “Karibu free breast and prostate cancer screening for male,” and before you finish, he gets stunned. “Do men have breasts?” of course yes! Everyone has breasts. This sounded really funny but we had to persevere and convince them. I think that is one reason why the turn up was pretty low on the men’s side. Actually, I am going to quarrel men in this article. Let’s go!

IMG-20150515-WA0004 IMG-20150515-WA0010

“Karibu free breast and prostate cancer screening for men,” Marcia said joyously. The gap between her teeth could be seen even in the sweltering sun, the eyes battling its reflection. But the smile got killed by one ill-informed guy. These men! I think you need to be taught more on what cancer can do to you. The man boldly said that he is clean, and knew he could not get cancer, leave alone saying that he did not have it. He walked away, looking at a banner which was at the gate and chortled in sarcasm. Seeing this, I gave up on welcoming the men.

I can say the above man was a bit respectful. One came in through the gate, donned in Chelsea shirt and a short. He had a rod which he used for support while walking. Timothy, my college at the entrance ran to welcome him in. before he reached the die-hard Chelsea fan, he got brawled at. “What are these? He said, looking at the tents. Timothy told him the expected story. “What are they doing inside there? That is a waste of time!” he concluded and limped into the supermarket to get his things done. We did not take that personal. I remained silent, just thinking of what has got into our Kenyan men.

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I faced a lot more than these. From the hurrying and busy people to the young ones doubting whether they can be victims or not. My intentions are not to judge anyone, but to strive to bring to your attention that cancer knows no man or woman. Maybe some think that it is a disease of the rich. Even if you wallow in abject poverty, you can get it. From a medical point of view, it can be inherited, there are many aspects of gene variation and mutation that would predispose someone to cancer. Wait! I just remembered. One man said that there is no reason for providing free screening without offering treatment. Let me explain this. Even the Bible said remind them even if they know. It is good to diagnoses the cancer early enough that one can spend less money managing it.

Before I wrap it up all, I would like to commend the ladies. Thank you for your great turn up. Martin Luther King Jr said, “Nothing in the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity.

acf cancer faraja


ticle 4

You are probably surprised when you see the jungle king laughing. Wait! Is that real? Yes it is. How can a lion laugh when tickled? Some of us have a rigid mindset that only humans can laugh. When I told my buddy that I have an article on tickling, she giggled and paused. “May I see it”? She asked, astounded. Let me now bring a scholarly squabble on this.

Laughter is physiologically spasmodic, rhythmic, vocalized, expiratory, and (when due to tickling) involuntary. That is according to Stearns (1972). He refers to the neural pathway of tickle-laughter arch. I do not want to bore you with magnanimous medical terms, so let me be brief and clear. Stearns says that tickling is as a result of simultaneous excitation of both sensation of touch and pain. Pain is a violation of physical integrity and comfort. It represents V, a violation of a moral principal. Touch sensations, on the other hand, provide an internal representation of the external, touched stimulus for the organism to process. This representation of the stimulus is painless by itself; it is a representation of a normal contact with a stimulus, N.

The fact that tickling requires a sensation of pain as well as a “normal” touch sensation, is a remarkable piece of evidence that appears to support the present theory of humor. The physiology of tickling is actually a restatement at the physiological level of the present theory of humor. Indeed, this suggests that physical tickling and more cerebral and cognitive forms of humor may have the same basic representation in the human nervous system, and that biological implementations of the two may at least be evolutionarily related.

Now let’s look at this.

ticktickle 2ticle 5

This guy is laughing, but he hasn’t been tickled. Have you ever experienced this? When you see some hands approach your neck of armpits, you suddenly begin to laugh. How can this be explained? Those who had a mind that tickling is physiological should pause and rethink until they fathom the whole concept.

It should be pointed out in making this comparison that the tickle response is not a purely physiological reflex response. While tickling of the type, “research scientist applies feather to plantar surface of foot”, may be thought to be purely physiological, there are kinds of tickling which clearly involve other mechanisms. Some people, for example, may be tickled without actually being touched. Such cases appear to involve a perceived attack in combination with a perceived lack of a real threat. Also, some people are simply “not ticklish”. Finally, one of the most robust and mysterious facts about ticklishness is that people usually cannot tickle themselves, but rather can only be tickled by some other agent. It would seem that the tickle response is not an innate physiological reflex, but involves something else that is possibly learnable, presumably cognitive. I suggest that this something is the judgement that one is being physically attacked in some way: a perceived fake attack. A perceived attack is obviously a violation of physical integrity and corresponds to a V interpretation. The falsity of the attack allows for a predominating N interpretation at the same time. The findings above follow from this suggestion: First, people for whom no sense of violation, invasion, or attack is evoked by light stimulation on footsoles, armpits, etc., will not be ticklish; conversely, ticklish people, on this account, are not of this character. Second, people who perceive an attack “in fun” may have a tickle response without actual touch, simply because the requisite judgment – a perceived fake attack – is present. And third, people ought not to be able to tickle themselves, either, since and to the extent that it is impossible to convince oneself that one is attacking oneself. You can’t fake an attack on yourself; you see through it every time. So both the physiological facts regarding the tickle response, and the more psychological findings are fully consistent with the present theory of humor.

I leave you with a decision to make. Is tickling physiological or psychological? Think, think, think.

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